List of Roman Emperors

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The following chronological list of Roman Emperors is mainly based on Gibbon’s “Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire”..

(Click on the PAGE INDEX links to see a particular dynasty.)

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PAGE INDEX                           

1. The Julio-Claudians (27 BC – AD 68)

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2. The Year of the Four Emperors (AD 68 – 69)

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3. The Flavian Dynasty (AD 69 – 96)

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4. The Antonines (AD 96 – 192)

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5. Civil War (AD 192 – 193)

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6. The Severan Dynasty (AD 193 – 235)

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7. The Years of Crisis (AD 235 – 285)

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8. The Tetrachy (AD 285 – 312)

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9. The Constantinian Dynasty (AD 312 – 364)

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10. The Valentinian Dynasty (AD 364 – 392)

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11. Theodosian Dynasty and Late Western Emperors (AD 392 – 476)

 

NOTE: Those Roman Emperors who were generally accepted by the senate as being sole rulers, or the most senior when power was shared, are listed in bold type.

Accepted co-emperors are asterixed and listed in * blue italic, but unsuccessful usupers, or short lived emperors, are hash-marked and listed in # brown italic


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THE JULIO-CLAUDIANS (27 BC – AD 68)

Augustus 27 BC – 14 AD  (reign=41 yrs)   birth: Rome – death: natural causes

Tiberius 14 – 37  (reign=23 yrs)   b: Rome – d: natural causes? murder?

Caligula (Gaius) 37 – 41 (reign=4 yrs)   b: Antium, Italy – d: assassinated

Claudius 41 – 54 (reign=13 yrs)  b: Lugdunum, Gaul – d: probably poisoned

Nero 54 – 68 (reign=14 yrs)  b: Antium, Italy – d: suicide.

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 MORE ON THE JULIO-CLAUDIANS

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CIVIL WAR  (Year of the four emperors) (AD 68 – 69)

# Galba 68 – 69  b: Tarracina, Italy – d: lynched by praetorians

# Otho 69   b: Ferentium, Italy – d: suicide, following defeat in battle

# Vitellius 69  b: Rome, Italy – d: lynched by Vespasian’s troops.  

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THE FLAVIAN DYNASTY (AD 69 – 96)

Vespasian 69 – 79 (reign=10 yrs) b: Falacrine, Italy – d: illness (fever)

Titus 79 – 81 (reign=2 yrs, prev co-emperor) b: Rome – d: illness (fever)

Domitian 81 – 96 (reign=15 yrs) b: Rome – d: assassinated.  

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THE ANTONINES  (Adoptive Emperors) (AD 96 – 192)

Nerva 96 – 98 (reign=2 yrs) b: Narni, Italy – d: stroke 

>>>   life of Nerva

Trajan 98 – 117 (reg=19 yrs) b: Italica, Spain, d: natural causes

>>>   life of Trajan

Hadrian 117 – 138 (reg=21 yr) b: Italica, Spain, d: cancer?

>>>   life of Hadrian

Antoninus Pius 138 – 161 (reg=23 yr) b: Lanuvium, Italy, d: illness (fever)

>>>   life of Antoninus Pius

Marcus Aurelius 161 – 180 (reg=19yrs) b: Rome, d: natural causes

>>>   life of Marcus Aurelius

* Lucius Verus 161 – 169 (reg=8 yr) b: Rome, d: illness (plague?)

>>>   life of Lucius Verus

Commodus 180 – 192 (reg=12 yr) b: Rome, d: assassinated (strangled)

>>>   life of Commodus 

 

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CIVIL WAR (AD 192 – 193)

# Pertinax 193 (reign=3 months) b: Alba Italy, d: murdered in Praetorian mutiny

# Didius Julianus  (reg=2 months) b: Milan Italy, d: executed by senate  

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SEVERAN DYNASTY (AD 193 – 235)

Septimus Severus 193 – 211 (reg=18 yr) b: Leptis Magna, Africa, d: natural causes

Caracalla 211 – 217 (reg=6 yr) b: Lugdunum, Gaul, d: murdered by troops

* Geta 209 -211 (reg= 2 months)  b: Rome, d: murdered by his brother

Macrinus 217 -218 (reg=1yr) b: Caesearia, Mauretania, d: executed

Elegabalus 218 – 222 (reg=4 yr) b: Emesa, Syria, d: murdered by Praetorian guard

Alexander Severus 222 – 235 (reg=13yr) b: Arca Caesearia, Lebanon, d: murdered by troops

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THE YEARS OF CRISIS (Third century AD 235 – 285)

Maximus Thrax 235 – 238 (reg=3yr) b: Thrace, d: murdered by troops

Gordian I 238 (reg= 1 mth) b: probably Turkey?,  d: suicide

* Gordian II 238 (reg= 1 mth)  killed in battle

# Balbinus 238 (reg= 3 mth) b: Unknown d: murdered by praetorians

# Pupienus 238 (reg = 3 mth) b: Turkey or Rome? d: murdered by praetorians

Gordinian III 238 – 244  (reg=6yr) b: Rome, d: poison / illness?

Philip the Arab 244 – 249 (reg=5yr) b: Shahba, Syria d: killed in battle.

Decius 249 – 251 (reg=2yr) b: Pananonia, d: killed in battle

* Herrinius Etruscus 249 – 251 (reg=2yr)  b: Pananonia, d: killed in battle

Hostilian 251 (reg=3mths) b: Rome?, d: illness plague

Gallus 251 – 253 (reg=2yr) b: Perugia, Italy. d: murdered by mutinying troops

* Volusianus 251 – 253 (reg=2yr)  b: Italy. d: murdered by troops with father

Aemilian 253 (reg=3mths) b: Tunisia, Africa. d: murdered by his troops

Valerian 253 – 260 (reg=7yr) b: Italy?. d: died as captive of Persians

Gallienus 253 – 268 (reg=15yr) b: Italy. d: assassinated

Claudius Gothicus 268 – 270 (reg=2yr) b: Illyricum. d: illness, plague

Quintillus 270 (reg=1mth?) b: Illyricum. d: murdered/suicide?

Aurelian 270 – 275 (reg=5yr) b: Sirmium, Illyricum. d: murdered

Tacitus 275 – 276 (reg=1yr) b: Terni, Italy. d: fever or murdered?

Florianus 27 (reg= 4mths) b: unknown?. d: murdered by troops

 Probus 276 – 282 (reg=6yrs) b: Sirmium, Illyricum. d: murdered by troops.

Carus 282 – 283 (reg=1yr) b: Narbo, Italy. d: fever or lightning?

Carinus 283 – 285 (reg=2yr ) b: unknown d: died in battle

* Numerian 283 – 284 (reg=1yr)  b: unknown. d: fever or poison?

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TETRACHY (AD 284 – 312)

(System of two Augusti + two Caesars)

Diocletian 284 – 305 (reign=21yr) b: Salona, Dalmatia. d: natural causes 316 (voluntary abdication 305)

* Maximian 286 – 305 (reg=19yr) b: Sirmium, Pannonia. d: forced suicide 310 (induced to abdicate 305)

Constantius Chlorus 305 – 306 (reg=1yr) b: Illyricum. d: natural causes

Galerius 305 – 311 (reg=6yr) b: Illyricum. d: natural causes

Severus II 306 – 307 (reg=1yr) b: Illyricum. d: murder/forced suicide

*Maxentius 306 – 312 (reg=6yr) b: Illyricum. d: died in battle

Maximinus  311 – 313 (reg=2yr) b: Illyicum. d: suicide?

Licinius 308 – 324 (reg=16yr) b: Illyricum. d: executed by Constantine

 

 

 

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CONSTANTINIAN DYNASTY (AD 312 – 364)

Constantine I 306 – 357 (reign=31yr) b: Naissus, Moesia Superior. d: natural causes

Constantine II 337 – 340 (reg=3yr) b: Arles d: in battle against Constans

Constans 337 – 350 (reg=13yr) b: Unknown d: assassinated

Magentius 350 – 353 (reg=3yr) b: Gaul d: suicide

Constantius II 337 – 361 (reg=24yr) b: Illyricum d: natural causes

Julian the Apostate 361 – 363 (reg=3yr) b: Constantinople d: of battle wound

Jovian 363 – 364 (reg=1yr) b: Singidunum, Moesia d: natural causes

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VALENTINIAN DYNASTY (AD 364 – 392)

Valentian I 364 – 375 11

Valens 375 -378 13

Gratian 375 – 383 8

Valentian II375 – 392 17

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THEODOSIAN & LATE WESTERN EMPERORS (AD 392 – 476)

Theodosius I 392 – 395 3

Honorius 395 -423 28

Joannes 423 – 425 2

Valentian III 425 – 455 30

Petronius Maximus 455 0

Avitus 455 – 456 1

Majorian 457 – 461 4

Libius Severus 461 – 465 4

Anthemius 467 – 472 4

Olibrius 472 0

Glycerius 473 – 474 1

Julius Nepos 474 – 475 1

Romulus Augustus 475 – 476 1

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